The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty that commits nations to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.

Parties to the Covenant may also become parties to either or both of its two Optional Protocols.
– The first Protocol came into force on 23 March 1976. It sets out a system by which the Human Rights Committee can receive and consider complaints from individuals who allege that their human rights have been violated. As its name makes clear, the Protocol is not compulsory, but once a State party to the Covenant also becomes a party to the Protocol, any person subject to the jurisdiction of the State party may lodge a written complaint with the Human Rights Committee (subject to any permissible reservations).
– The Second Protocol came into force on 11 July 1991. The second Optional Protocol abolishes the death penalty for States parties.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights


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